The rich variety of the drama as an art form and its indispensable human nature have been remarkably highlighted and summed up by the great theatrical producer, Max Reinhardt as follows: The translation of Indian Drama into English unlike the translation of novels and poems written in regional languages into English is quite scanty and inadequate. While expressing his deep love to Ganga Sangya tells her: Though both know very well that their illicit relationship can only be a temporary one they still continue their immoral relationship without any fear for society and its moral values. Minerva Publications, The tradition of Indian folk theatre – both religious and secular – reaches back to distant antiquity. But Balya impersonates himself for Sangya and changes the content of the letter to suit his treacherous plan. These stories have not lost their enduring and everlasting charm and even now serve as essential and generative source for creative expression in literature and art.
But Balya impersonates himself for Sangya and changes the content of the letter to suit his treacherous plan. There is a commonality about them. In his introduction, the translator points out that this may seem redundant to Western readers, but rightly adds that this feature derives from the live presentation of the play before an audience, and must be understood as such xiii. Like one of the three witches who ensnare Macbeth into the eternal world of curse and tribulation Paramma with her artful and crafty words ultimately pulls Ganga into an irredeemable trap. Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore. Through the Prism of Translation. I have invited you, young man, Out of my deep love for you. This is not the right thing For you to do, man Be not subject to maya, Lest you should ruin yourself.
But Virabhadra does not accept her idea and proceeds on his business tour after telling her: In Karnataka, folk theatre comprises an array of fascinating forms, the most important among them being the Bayalata, or open air theatre, which includes types such as Dasarata, Sannata, Doddata, Parijatha and Yakshagana.
I have full sympathy for my husband. History of Indian Theatre. He may hack you to pieces, In broad daylight, fool, Unnecessarily, nincompoop? Betrayal, a folk play in translation with its eternally appealing themes and powerful dramatic dialogues, melodious music and enrapturing dance can be effectively staged. An Introduction to Drama. Describing the beauty of Ganga, Paramma says: He rushes home and finds the two indulging in the immoral act.
The songs and the music in the play never fail to appeal to the spectators. This is quite evident because characters such as Sangya, Ganga, Balya and Virabhadra are moved by elemental passions and instincts such as love, lust, greediness and revenge. It is to the actor and to no one else that the theatre belongs.
His words and images are natural, genuine and straightforward. Her neck is decked with golden garlands. Basavaraj Naikar’s rendition of Rayappa Pattar’s original text from Kannada into English brings to life a well-known Sannata text from North Karnataka: Notes from The Classroom. Drama as an extensive and a comprehensive art delineating the variegated saga of human life in all its complexity includes the performing arts of dancing, singing and playing on musical instruments. Folk performance generally forms a part of a community or social celebration.
In the words of G.
In the words of Naikar: On the advice of a koravanji, or fortune-teller, the services of Paramma, an old woman who is Sangya’s aunt and Ganga’s neighbour are procured on the promise of money, gold and bungalows.
Indeed, the moral vision of the play is closely tied to its folk origins, and this feature has been retained in Prof.
Virabhadra charges his wife with adultery and accuses stlry of bringing disreputation and dishonour to his honourable family.
You took thousands of rupees from me And sneaked away from me, Balya. The audience must take its part in the play if we are ever to see a true art of the theatre — the oldest, most powerful, and most immediate of the arts, combining the many in one. The translation of Indian Drama into English unlike the translation of novels and poems written in regional languages into English is quite scanty and inadequate.
I have invited you, young man, Out of my deep love for you. The Wonder That was India. His felicity of expression reflects his mature style, which shows his mastery over the English language.
His effective use of the spoken language of the folk people and images shows his proficiency in dramatizing a situation suitably. A Folk Tragedy S. Naikar’s translation of the play into English in based on this secondary tantalization. They have nothing artificial about them.
Sangya is cruelly murdered with sickles and axes by Virabhadra and his brothers. Coming as it does at a time when there is a wider interest in translations from native languages into English, it is a timely attempt.
Naikar has acknowledged in his introduction both the composer and the minstrels who recorded the text. The point of ruination starts when Sangappa fondly called Sangyaa handsome and rich young man, is stpry by the bewitching beauty of Ganga, the young wife of a rich landlord cum businessman named Virabhadra fondly called Iranna or Irya.
Moreover, like in Shakespearean tragedies these scenes act as comic interludes followed by serious actions, which ultimately lead to the tragic end of the play. Asia Publishing House, The folk theatre of North Karnataka has a rich and glorious tradition. Sangya understands the wicked nature of Balya when he is left alone in darkness in a strange place after Balya takes leave of him on some pretext.
This multiple approach results in a form kannaxa is self-contained and a complete entertainment.
Indeed, as the translator clarifies in his introduction ixSangya-Balya is a dappinatain which songs sung to the accompaniment of a small, flat drum called dappu play an important part. Skip to main content. The images, which reflect the day-to-day activities of the folk people, have freshness and originality.
The lustre of your pretty face Is like a lamp lighting the world